Archaeology (ARC) - Courses
+ next to a course number indicates a general education course
+ARC 100 Cr.3
Archaeology: Discovering Our Past
This course is an introduction to the fascinating world of archaeology designed as a detailed exploration of the methods used to learn about past human life before written records. Each student will be involved in the process of discovering our past. Offered Annually.
ARC 101 Cr.1
Orientation to the Archaeological Studies Major
This course is an orientation to the archaeological studies major. It is designed for students who have either declared or are considering archaeology as a major. It is appropriate for second semester freshman through first semester juniors and all transfer students. The field of archaeology as a discipline will be discussed as will career options related to the field. Students will be required to complete a variety of tasks designed to identify and/or clarify career paths and goals and increase their understanding of archaeology as both an empirical and applied science. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall.
ARC 196 Cr.1
Archaeology: An Introduction to Lab and Field Methods
This course is a laboratory and field learning component to the course ARC 100. The course provides important hands-on learning opportunities for archaeology majors to further introduce and reinforce topics introduced in ARC 100. Lab sessions provide foundational knowledge in the processing and analysis of archaeological finds and field records. Field excavation sessions provide students basic training in the methods and techniques for the recovery and interpretation of archaeological evidence from archaeological sites. Prerequisite: archaeology majors take concurrently with ARC 100. Offered Fall.
+ARC 200 Cr.3
World Archaeology: Origins and Development of Human Culture and Society
The complex global institutions that make up our modern world have antecedents going back thousands of years. This survey course explores the origins of these cultural institutions and their development in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia and the New World from an archaeological perspective. This course also examines the intimate interconnections between human culture, technology, and the natural environment, and it explores the long-term impact of human behavior on the environment over the last several thousand years. Specific themes explored include the biological origin of our species, the first use of tools and the development of artistic expression, human response to climate change, the origins and development of agriculture and animal domestication, the advent of writing, history and science, the rise of urbanism and state level society, and the lasting cultural impacts of early global interactions among the great civilizations of the ancient world. Offered Fall, Spring.
ARC/HIS 204 Cr.3
Ancient Literate Civilizations
An historical and archaeological study of ancient Eurasia and North Africa, including a survey of the major archaeological sites. Topics such as the development of urbanization in the Near East and Mediterranean, and comparative studies of the Indus civilization, China, Classical Greece, Rome, and the New World will be discussed. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC 241 Cr.3
North American Archaeology
An intensive survey of the prehistoric cultures of North America north of the Rio Grande from the initial peopling of the New World to European contact. Major archaeological sites and cultures will be critically examined and an interdisciplinary approach is stressed. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 250 Cr.3
This introductory course provides a history of museums, their goals and methods, administration, curation and exhibit techniques. Participants will be taking field trips to museums. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 280 Cr.3
The Incas and their Ancestors: Archaeology of the Andes
This course reviews the prehistory and early historic periods of the Andean regions of South America. Emphasis will be placed on tracing the rise of civilization in the Andes which culminated in the Inca Empire and the extraordinary events that led to the conquest of the Inca by the Spanish conquistadors. Topics to be explored include the controversial evidence of early man in South America, the role of the ocean and mountains in shaping pre-hispanic life, the origin of domesticated plants and animals, and the rise of the complex societies of Moche, Tiwanaku, Wari, Chimu, and of course, the Inca. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 285 Cr.3
Archaeology of Mexico and Central America
This course offers the student an overview of the evolution of the civilizations of ancient Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) from the earliest stages of hunting and food gathering until the conquest of Mesoamerica by Spain in the early 16th century. The course describes the social and economic life as organized by a complex religion which produced human sacrifice, writing, calendrical systems, advanced art forms, iconography, and monument building activities. Offered Summer.
ARC/HIS 295 Cr.3
Pyramids, Temples and Towns! The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
This course is a survey of the archaeology of Ancient Egyptian civilization from an anthropological perspective and examines the Neolithic through Roman periods, ca. 5000 BC - AD 285. In this course, we will investigate the rise and development of Egyptian culture by examining selected archaeological sites and the material remains left behind by the ancient Egyptians. Using these materials, we will address specific topics of Ancient Egyptian civilization including the formation of the centralized state, sacred vs secular space, royal and private mortuary practices, urbanism, religion, roles of women in society, everyday life, history of Egyptian archaeology, recent discoveries, and future directions in the archaeology of Egypt. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Every Third Semester.
ARC 300 Cr.3
Cultural Resources Management
Since the 1980's American archaeology has shifted from a strictly academic profession to a more practical occupation in which consulting and the implementation of legislation and public policy are major components. In fact, today Cultural Resource Management (CRM) is the dominant force in archaeology in the United States. The primary goals of this class are to provide students with an appreciation of the importance of CRM and an understanding of the legislation that drives it, as well as exposure to the everyday practices of archaeologists working in a CRM context. Prerequisite: ARC 196 recommended. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 303 Cr.3
Archaeology Lab Methods
Taking a hands-on approach to analyzing and interpreting archaeological remains, the class will integrate lectures with demonstrations, experiments, and supervised laboratory projects. Study will focus on the potential for interpreting human life ways and adaptations to the environment from stone tools, ceramics, floral, and faunal remains. Prerequisite: ARC 196. Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC 304 Cr.3
Hunter and Gatherer Societies
This course focuses on recent human societies throughout the world that have lived by hunting and gathering wild resources. The specific subsistence strategies of a wide range of hunter-gatherer groups are examined relative to their technology, social structure, territory, demography and interaction with food producers. The conclusion of this course will consider hunter-gatherers in prehistory. Prerequisite: ANT 101 or ARC 196. (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC 305 Cr.3
Indigenous Agricultural Societies: Past & Present
This course examines the origins, structure, social organization, and operation of indigenous agricultural societies. A central focus of the course is an inquiry based, sequential examination of geographically related couplets involving (1) contemporary indigenous agricultural tribal societies and (2) archaeological excavation reports. The utility of the ethnographic record as a guide to interpretation of the archaeological record is evaluated. Prerequisite: (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC 310 Cr.3
This course will focus on the human occupation in the Midwest/Great Lakes region over the past 12,000 years. Emphasis will be given to the dynamic quality of cultural adaptation and social organization. The cultural developments leading to the Middle Woodland and Mississippi climaxes in the region are to be stressed. Prerequisite: ARC 196. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 312 Cr.3
Africa has the longest archaeological record in the world. This course will examine the archaeology of African peoples from millions of years ago to the present, with particular emphasis placed on the last ten thousand years of African prehistory. Topics covered will include the continent's unique pathways to food production, as well as the development of metallurgy, the rise of complex urban societies such as Aksum and Jenne Jeno, and contemporary issues in cultural heritage. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 320 Cr.3
The focus of this course is historical archaeology. This discipline combines an archaeological evaluation of material remains from the historic past with an examination and analysis of historical sources. In the New World, historical archaeologists work on a broad range of sites that document early European settlement and its effects on Native American peoples, wars fought on American soil, the subsequent spread of the Euro-American frontier, and later periods of urbanization and industrialization. Historical archaeologists seek to understand the past from an anthropological perspective and appreciate how broad historical developments have shaped modern society. In this class, we will explore all these aspects of historical archaeology in the New World and abroad. Prerequisite: ARC 196. Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC 330 Cr.3
Pastoralism: Past and Present
Mobile pastoralism is a way of life centered on the management and herding of livestock. It has had a powerful impact on social and environmental landscapes since originating independently in various forms throughout the world, and tens of millions of people throughout the world still rely on cattle and other domesticated animals for survival today. This course will explore the archaeology and anthropology of pastoralist societies, focusing on the ecological, political, and cultural strategies that made pastoralism dynamic and sustainable throughout prehistory and into the current era. (Cross-listed with ARC/ANT, may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 331 Cr.3
The Ancient Greek World
A historical and archaeological survey of the ancient Greek world (Greece proper, the Aegean Islands, southern Italy, western Turkey). Periods discussed will include Cretan (Minoan), Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Early Greek Christian. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 332 Cr.3
Ancient Rome and the Mediterranean
A historical and archaeological survey of the ancient Mediterranean area (with emphasis on the Italian peninsula) from the founding of the city of Rome to the collapse of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century ACE. Periods discussed will include: Italy in the Neolithic period, the founding of Rome, Etruscan Domination, the Roman Republic, the Roman Principate/Empire, and the advent of Roman Christianity. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC 335 Cr.3
Human Skeletal Anatomy and the Anthropological Study of the Dead
This course is designed for students majoring in archaeological studies or related fields. The focus of this course is a detailed study of the human skeleton. Each student will be required to learn the anatomy of the human skeleton in detail. Also considered are methods of determining an individual's age, ethnic origins, sex, and stature from skeletal remains. The final three weeks of the course will be concerned with anthropological interpretation of the dead. Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 340 Cr.3
Origins of Cities
This course examines the origins and development of urban life. Students will first explore, from an anthropological perspective, the character of modern cities. Students will next examine the earliest cities in the Old and New Worlds, and comparatively explore the varied ecological, social, political, and demographic processes associated with urbanization in various ancient civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, China, Andes, and Mesoamerica). While the focus of this course is on archaeological cities, it draws heavily on ethnographic and sociological studies of urban forms. The purpose of this course is to provide students with a comparative understanding and appreciation of urban life and its long history. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC 346 Cr.3
Ethnoarchaeology and Experimental Archaeology
Archaeology isn't only about excavations: Since the 1960s, archaeologists have also examined aspects of life in the present as a way to better interpret material culture found at ancient sites. Ethnoarchaeology uses ethnographic field methods among modern peoples to develop informed hypotheses about life in the past. Experimental archaeology uses controlled scientific experiments to develop models about past behaviors including tool use, pottery production, etc. This course will cover both of these "middle-range" approaches, and will require participation in hands-on ethnoarchaeological and experimental class projects. Prerequisite: ANT 101 or ANT 195 or ANT/SOC 202 or ARC 100 or ARC 196 or ARC 200. (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/ESC/GEO 347 Cr.3
An applied course on the contribution of earth sciences to the interpretation of archaeological contexts. This course will consist of field, lab and lecture components. Emphasis is placed on the methods of geoarchaeology and the applications of selected earth science fields to archaeological problems. Field trips will be a required component of the course in order to complete field descriptions and sampling. Prerequisite: ARC 196 or ESC 222 or ESC/GEO 426 or ESC/GEO 430. (Cross-listed with ARC/ESC/GEO; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC 350 Cr.1-6
Independent Foreign Research in Archaeology
An individually designed, directed archaeological research project in a foreign country dealing with a significant field, laboratory, museum or archival/library research problem. The course permits in-depth, independent research using foreign sources, facilities, and resource persons. Requires a high degree of motivation and the ability to work independently. Only three credits may apply to the major. Prerequisite: INS 250; junior standing. Consent of department. Offered Occasionally.
ANT/ARC/HIS 353 Cr.3
The course presents an overview of the Maya culture located in southern Mexico and Central America. The class is organized chronologically into several sections that focus on the origins, adaptations to various environments, social, political, and religious organizations, and the belief systems of the Maya beginning at around 3000 BC. Emphasis will be on Pre-Hispanic Maya; will also explore life ways of contemporary Maya people. (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC/HIS, may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Summer.
ANT/ARC 357 Cr.3
Peoples and Cultures of Africa
An anthropological introduction to the peoples and cultures of sub-Saharan Africa. Through classic and contemporary ethnography, as well as literature and film, this course will examine the history, diversity, and richness of African civilizations from pre-colonial times to the present. Throughout the course we will examine and challenge Western narratives about Africa and Africans, and take a critical approach to understanding current social, political, and economic issues facing African peoples. (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 365 Cr.3
A historical and archaeological survey of ancient Iraq (Syro-Mesopotamia) from its prehistoric origins in the neolithic period to the Seleucid period. Ethnic groups discussed will include the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Kassites, Amorites, Chaldeans, and Elamites. Topics will include the rise of urbanism, cuneiform writing, religion, literature, displaced persons, gender relations, and social structure. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 366 Cr.3
A historical and archaeological survey of coastal Syria and Palestine from the neolithic period to the Roman conquest. Various ethnic groups discussed will include the Eblaites, Phoenicians, Philistines, Canaanites, Arameans, Israelites, Samaritans, and Judeans. Special emphasis will be placed on putting biblical history in its Palestinian context. Topics will include social structure, gender relations, religion, and literature. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 367 Cr.3
This course is a survey of the history, archaeology, culture, and civilization of ancient Egypt from the prehistoric periods, the Pharaonic periods, as well as the Greaco-Roman periods (to the advent of Christianity). Special attention will be given to reading historical texts in translation. We will also explore various aspects of Egyptian religion, and the treatment of woman and non-Egyptian ethnic groups. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 368 Cr.3
History of Babylonian Language and Culture I
This course is a survey of Babylonian history, culture, and language. Babylonian, was the most extensive of the cuneiform languages of the ancient Near East, was the language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians and was used for over two millennia. Students will study aspects of the history and culture of ancient Babylonia, as well as learn the fundamentals of Babylonian grammar and syntax, and the cuneiform writing system. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 369 Cr.3
History of Babylonian Language and Culture II
This course is a second semester survey of Babylonian history, culture, and language. Babylonian, the most extensive of the cuneiform languages of the ancient Near East, was the language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians and was used for over two millennia. Whereas the student studies grammatical forms and is introduced to the cuneiform writing system in the first semester, the student in the second semester will work with documents. Students will study aspects of the history and culture of ancient Babylonia in later periods, as well as read legal, economic, and literary texts in the original language. Prerequisite: HIS 368 or ARC 368. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 372 Cr.3
History of Women in the Ancient World
A history of the nature and status of women in the ancient world as derived from textual sources, including works of literature, private letters, economic documents, and tomb inscriptions. Areas studies will be Syro-Mesopotamia, Israel, Iran, Anatolia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean world. Also discussed will be the study of women as derived from archaeological sources. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 374 Cr.3
An historical and archaeological survey of ancient Anatolia (the geographic name of Turkey) and surrounding regions (e.g., Syria and the Caucaucus) from its prehistoric origins in the Neolithic period, the rise of urbanism, Assyrian mercantilism, Pre-Hattic cultures, the Hittite kingdoms, the Neo-Hittite states, Urartu, Phrygia, Lydia, Cimmerians, Medes, Persians, and various states in the Graeco-Roman period to the advent of Anatolian Christianity. Topics will include cuneiform writing, religion, literature, law, gender relations, and social structure. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC/HIS 375 Cr.3
Iran before Islam
An historical and archaeological survey of ancient Iran and surrounding regions from prehistoric origins to the advent of Islam in the 7th century AD. Among the topics discussed will be: the rise of urbanism and writing at Proto-Elamite Susa, Elamite civilization in southwestern Iran, Medes, Scythians, and Persians in the Iron Age, the Persian Empire, as well as the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanian kingdoms of later antiquity. Emphasis will be on the study of primary sources in translation (Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite, Old Persian, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, amongst others). Topics will include cuneiform writing in Iran, religion, literature, gender relations, classical traditions about Iran, and social structure. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS, may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC 395 Cr.1
Graduate Preparation Seminar
Third year students who are interested in pursuing a graduate degree in anthropology or archaeology have many things to consider. This seminar is designed to help students determine what research they intend to pursue after graduation, what graduate schools are particularly well suited to meet their research needs, how to target and apply to certain programs, and how to develop an impressive resume. This seminar will also serve to prepare students who do not intend to continue their education in graduate school for employment opportunities upon graduation. Prerequisite: archaeology major; junior standing. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall.
ARC/HIS 396 Cr.3
A historical and archaeological survey of ancient Syria and surrounding regions from prehistoric origins to the advent of the Roman conquest in the first century BC. Among the topics discussed will be the rise of urbanism and writing along the Euphrates River, religion, gender, social structure, and literature. Moreover, the student will study in translation the vast cuneiform archives from Ebla, Mari, Alalakh, Qattara, Nuzi, Emar, and Ugarit, to name a few. Furthermore, biblical, classical, and medieval sources concerning Syria in the first millennium BC will be studied. (Cross-listed with ARC/HIS; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Occasionally.
ARC 399 Cr.3
Investigation of areas and topics of current archaeological interest not covered in the regular curriculum. Repeatable for credit - maximum 12. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 402 Cr.3-8
Field Methods in Archaeology
Practical application of the basic skills used in the excavation of archaeological sites, including surveying techniques, methods of excavation, compilation of field data, and laboratory analysis. Prerequisite: ARC 196. Consent of instructor. Offered Summer.
ARC 404 Cr.3
This course investigates the relationship between prehistoric human societies and their biotic communities. An array of techniques using plant and animal remains from archaeological contexts to reconstruct aspects of ancient environments, climates, and human subsistence patterns are examined. Applications of environmental data toward the understanding of human settlement and subsistence systems are discussed. Prerequisite: ARC 196; junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 409/509 Cr.1-3
Readings and Research in Archaeology
Directed readings or research under the supervision of an instructor. Repeatable for credit - maximum 12. Prerequisite: ARC 200 or ARC 490 or ARC 493; junior standing. Consent of instructor. Offered Annually.
ARC 415 Cr.3
Advanced Research Applications in Archaeology
This course will provide advanced training in archaeological data collection and analysis, with focus on designing theoretically-rich analyses that can be applied to answering specific research questions. To this end, each semester will focus intensively on a single category of advanced analysis, such as lithic or ceramic materials analysis. Prerequisite: ARC 196 and ARC 303. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 445 Cr.3
Research Methods in Archaeology
This course is an introduction to a broad spectrum of research strategies available to archaeologists with a focus on quantitative methods. It is not a course in statistics. Rather, the course is intended to help students learn to be comfortable working with qualitative and quantitative data, and to be a sampler of commonly used quantitative methods in archaeology. Prerequisite: ARC 196; MTH 145 recommended. Offered Fall.
ARC 450 Cr.1-15
Internship in Archaeology
An academically relevant field experience for archaeology students. The experience will involve direct participation in excavation, laboratory analysis, or other aspects of archaeological science including museum work, supervised by an archaeologist or professional of a related discipline. Repeatable for credit - maximum 15. Only three credits can apply to the major. Prerequisite: junior standing; minimum 3.00 cumulative GPA. Consent of department. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Annually.
ARC 455 Cr.3
Historical and Theoretical Perspectives in Archaeology
This course reviews the practice of archaeology from its antiquarian beginnings through modern times. The goal of the course is to explore, from a historical perspective, the theoretical approaches that have been used by archaeologists to explain past human behavior. By exploring the development of archaeological thought through time, students will gain a deeper understanding of current theoretical approaches in archaeology. Prerequisite: ARC 196; junior standing. Offered Fall.
ANT/ARC 479 Cr.1-2
Archaeology/Anthropology Laboratory Assistant
An opportunity to assist in the preparation and instruction of an archaeology/anthropology laboratory. Students will be expected to assist in preparation of course materials, demonstrate proper techniques, and evaluate student performance. Repeatable for credit - maximum four. Not applicable to the archaeology major or anthropology minor. (Cross-listed with ANT/ARC, may only earn credit in one department.) Consent of instructor. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Annually.
ARC 489 Cr.3
Honors Thesis in Archaeology
This is the capstone course for archaeological studies majors enrolled in the Archaeology Honors Program. Honors students take this course in lieu of ARC 499, typically during their final year. The course is designed to assist the student in completing a Baccalaureate thesis that will be presented in hard copy as well as verbally at the Annual Archaeological Studies Spring Research Colloquium. Prerequisite: ARC 196; ARC 200; acceptance to the Archaeology Honors Program; senior standing. Offered Spring.
ARC 490/590 Cr.3
Archaeology for Teachers
This course explores methods and resources for applying archaeology in the regular precollegiate classroom. A brief overview of the science of archaeology, and the pre-European cultures of Wisconsin and Minnesota is provided. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 491/591 Cr.3
Archaeology Field School for Teachers
Participants will experience the basic skills used in the excavation of archaeological sites, including surveying techniques, methods of excavation, compilation, of field data and laboratory analysis. Practical application of the skills will be related to the classroom of the precollegiate instructor. Repeatable for credit - maximum 12. Prerequisite: ARC 490 or ARC 493; junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 492/592 Cr.3
Archaeology Analysis Procedures for Teachers
Taking a hands-on approach to analyzing and interpreting archaeological remains, the class will integrate lectures with demonstrations, experiments, and supervised laboratory projects. Study will focus on the potential for interpreting human life ways and adaptations to the environment from stone tools, ceramics, floral, and faunal remains. Practical application of the interpretation process will be related to the classroom of the precollegiate instructor. Introduction will provide an overview of field procedures. Prerequisite: ARC 490 or ARC 493; junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 493/593 Cr.3
Wisconsin Archaeology for Teachers
This class is designed to provide teachers with substantial content on the science of archaeology and the pre-European history of Wisconsin. Through an inquiry-based approach, teachers learn the process of archaeological interpretation of cultural patterns from material remains by undertaking the reconstruction of such patterns from a provided sample of material remains. This process is applicable to the K-12 classroom. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 494/594 Cr.1-3
Applied Archaeology for Teachers
This class is designed to give teachers a comprehensive and hands-on personal experience in archaeological data acquisition, interpretation and experimental archaeology. Participants will apply class content to the K-12 classroom. Repeatable for credit - maximum 12. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 498/598 Cr.1-3
Seminar in Archaeology
Intensive study of some specific area or problem of archaeology. Repeatable for credit - maximum 12 between ARC 498/598 and ANT 499. Departmental option for pass/fail grading. Prerequisite: ARC 200 or ARC 490 or ARC 493; junior standing. Maximum 12 credits may be earned between ARC 498 and ANT 499. Offered Occasionally.
ARC 499 Cr.3
Senior Project/Thesis in Archaeology
This course is the last course in the archaeological studies major course sequence and is normally taken during the student’s final year. The course is designed to assist the student in completing the graduation requirement of the senior project/thesis. Prerequisite: ARC 196; senior standing; admission to archaeology major. Consent of instructor. Offered Spring.